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Microwave Therapy Principle Application

Microwave Therapy Principle Application Electromagnetic radiations used for the treatment of different pathologies lying between the radio waves and the infrared waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength of between 1 m and 1 cm and frequencies of 300MHz-30GHz. For gaining the therapeutic effects in medicine, three frequencies used in most parts of the world. These frequencies include:

  • 2450 MHz with a wavelength of 12.245 cm
  • 915 MHz with a wavelength of 32.79 cm.
  • 433.9 MHz with a wavelength of 69.14 cm,

however, 2450 MHz the widely used frequency.

Microwave Therapy Principle Application:

microwave work on the same principle on which other electromagnetic radiations work, they reflect, refract at the interface and absorb as well as penetrate in the materials depending upon the properties of the material on which they fall. These waves also show the phenomena of the divergence that can explain inverse square law.

when microwaves applied on the part, then ionic movement, rotation of dipoles as well as distortion of the orbits occure. When all these processes get combined, the production of heat take place.

Microwave Therapy Principle Application


High-frequency currents responsible for the production of the microwaves. Magnetron used to produce high frequency current. The magnetron responsible for the generation of high oscillating currents from a high-velocity motion of the electrons.

After the production, this high-frequency current carried through a coaxial cable to a small antenna mounted on a reflector from which these microwaves emit. A coaxial cable like a central wire that surrounded an outer sheath of metal. Separate means of an insulating material.


Emitters available in a wide variety. Some emitters placed at a certain distance from the body. They usually circular or rectangular in shape with greatest densities in the peripheral and the central parts of the area to treated respectfully.

Their emitters placed in direct contact with the tissues. These emitters smaller in size and mostly they only effective for the treatment of the cavities. Some emitters concave surfaced that fits around the body and most effective of all the emitters.

Physiological Effects:

According to Grotthus law, of all the waves penetrating the part, only those responsible for producing an effect that absorbed. So if the waves pass perpendicular, they not able to produce the effects that required(cosine law). Although the depth of penetration of microwave more than the infrared radiations but less than the shortwave diathermy making it unsuitable for the treatment of the deeper structures. The penetration of microwaves that considered as effective is 3cm. Absorption of microwaves in the tissues depends upon the content of water in the tissues.

For this reason, more heat is produced in the muscles with good blood supply than fats which decreased blood supply.


There are some effects to be followed.

  1. Increase metabolism
  2. increase circulation
  3. Receptor stimulation

Microwave Therapy Principle Application picture

Technique Of Application:

  1. Prepare the apparatus connecting the emitter to machine and power the switch on, as it requires time for the production of the waves, so it should switch on sometime before placed on patient’s body.
  2. Support the patient in a comfortable position.  Cover the eyes of a patient with mesh goggles and remove the cloth from a body where needed for the treatment.
  3. Arrange the emitter on the body in such a way that it lies parallel to the part treated. The distance of emitter from the body depends upon the area of the part.
  4. Warn the patient to report any excessive heat that felt.  It is necessary to tell a patient to a slight warmth. At the time of feeling the heat, try to stop any action.

 Microwave Therapy Principle Application Dosage:

Take a dose of about 200 W/cm2 for 10-30 min.

Microwave Therapy Principle Application Indications:

  • Muscle spasm
  • Joint stiffness
  • Pain relief
  • Bacterial infections
  • Rheumatic problems
  • joint contractures
  • Myofascial trigger points

Microwave Therapy Principle Application Contraindications:

  • Decreased sensations
  • Decreased flow of blood
  • Malignant tumors
  • TB
  • X-rays exposed areas
  • Acute inflammatory conditions
  • Testes
  • Pregnancy
  • Metal implant
  • Cardiac pacemaker
  • Joint effusion
  • Hemorrhage
  • Osteomyelitis

Microwave Therapy Principle Application Dangers:

  • Burn

Use adequate intensity.  Metal objects removed to avoid it

  • Lens opacities

Use special goggles to cover the eyes.