light amplification of stimulated emission of radiation a light beam from the electromagnetic spectrum.
low-level laser therapy investigated and used clinically for over thirty years, mostly in eastern Europe and Asia.
How To Work:
It works on a principle of inducing a biological response through energy transfer, in that the photonic energy delivered into the tissue through the laser, it causes the modulation of biological process within that tissue.
Lasers produce nonionizing electromagnetic radiation that extremely monochromatic, polarized and coherent.
It penetrates in human tissue upto 8-15mm.
Types of Lasers:
1.High power lasers: hot lasers and are used for surgical cutting.
2.Low power lasers: Also known as cold lasers. Mostly used in the treatment of tendons and ligaments injuries, arthritis, edema, scar inhibition, ulcer, soft tissue injuries and burns.
according to some liteature, there are three types of lasers:
1.Power laser: Used for destructive or surgical processes.
2.Soft laser: Used for the treatment of skin conditions.
3.Mild laser: Used in physiotherapy.
TYPES OF LASER:
The different types of LASERs are:
Out of these Helium Neon LASER, which has got the wavelength of 632.8 nm, is commonly used in Physiotherapy
1.Direct contact over the skin which is known as gridding technique.
2.Distance contact 5cm distance from skin known as scanning technique.
3. Laser is applied over the grid area in an oscillating manner known as Wanding technique.
NON CONTACT METHOD
30 cm distance between skin and output
Divide treatment areas into grids of square centimeters
No contact between laser tip in the skin; the tip is held 5-10 mm from the wound
Point Application (Acupuncture point)
Dosage and Frequency:
A pulsed mode with fixed power output is used with a frequency of 550-700Hz, a peak power of 5W having an intensity of about 0.3mW. Therapeutic LASER can be applied for 2 to 30 seconds
Few manufacturers even suggest the application of LASER up to 10 to 12 minutes
Thus it is wise to calculate the dosages or follow the guidelines of a manufacturer to get satisfactory results. Alternatively can apply a dose of 1 to 12 J/cm2 by using the formula:
Therapeutic LASER is pulsed or continuous mode can be applied
Everyday or on alternate days
Three to ten weeks
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS
Low-intensity-level Laser(LILL) Penetrate the skin with no heating effect, no damage to skin & no side effects.
It increases wounds and ulcers healing may be due to increased phagocytosis, facilitation of collagen synthesis, increased wound closure.
Improved blood circulation & vasodilatation
Increases blood supply
Stimulates immune system
Optimizes the immune responses of blood
Alter nerve conduction velocity
Stimulates nerve function
Accelerated Tissue Repair and Cell Growth
Photons of light from lasers penetrate deeply into tissue and accelerate cellular reproduction and growth. The laser light increases the energy available to the cell so that the cell can take on nutrients faster and get rid of waste products.
Laser therapy has an anti-edemic effect as it causes vasodilation, but also because it activates the lymphatic drainage system (drains swollen areas). As a result, there is a reduction in swelling caused by inflammation.
Laser therapy has a high beneficial effect on nerve cells which block pain transmitted by these cells to the brain and which decreases nerve sensitivity. Also, due to less inflammation, there is less edema and less pain.
Improved Vascular Activity
Laser light will significantly increase the formation of new capillaries in damaged tissue that speeds up the healing process, closes wounds quickly and reduces scar tissue.
Increased Metabolic Activity
it creates higher outputs of specific enzymes, greater oxygen and food particle loads for blood cells.
Trigger Points and Acupuncture Points
it stimulates muscle trigger points and acupuncture points on a non-invasive basis providing musculoskeletal pain relief.
Soft tissue injuries (nerve, muscles, ligaments, tendons, bursa)
e.g: Sprain, strain, bursitis, tendinitis, tenosynovitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, etc
e.g: Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, backache, etc
Neuralgia—pain (both acute and chronic)
Wounds & Ulcers
Application over eyes
Pregnancy – over & around the uterus
Over cardiac region & Vagus nerve
Growth plates in children
Over & around thyroid gland & endocrine glands
Patients who have been pre-treated with one or more photosensitizers
DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS:
Pass through the lens of eyes causing burns
Prevented by protective goggles
Avoid application to eyes
Advise the patient not to stare directly
Room should be dark and no reflecting material including the room color
Appropriate warning symbols outside the room