Developmental disabilities

Developmental Disabilities Definition

“Developmental disability define as  disorder of functions of nervous system”.

Causes of developmental disability

Developmental disability is due to lack of functioning of one or two domains. Which affect the growth of mental of children in childhood or in infancy. It may affect vision, hearing, listening, speech and behavior. These type of children said to be special because special attention required to treat differently able children.

List of developmental disability

  • Autism
  • cerebral palsy
  • intellectual disability
  • down Syndrome
  • Epilepsy
  • Hearing impairment
  • Visual impairment
  • Spina Bifida

What are the 5 developmental disabilities

There are 5 common developmental disabilities. Which as follow.

Autism

It is a condition in which behavior of children is different from society. Destruction behavior includes a lack of understanding of communication skills and language. Children with autism feel difficulty in communicating. They can’t understand what others feel and think. They have their own world. The term ‘autism’ derived from the Greek word ‘auto’. Which means ‘self’.  it describes a lack of interaction with society.

Symptoms

Symptoms of autism can differ in different people. Development of disability depends on a society where children with autism survive. If society treats them well it may be a chance of its recovery. But, if society ignores these type of children, they may befall more and more in this disease. There is no single cause for it. Some peoples have very noticeable issues, while others might not. It depends on behavior, communication skills and language with spectrum by those who have no spectrum. Autism people want a close relationship but unable to understand others feeling due to lack of know-how of relations.

Prevention

Doctors don’t know prevention. Because there are no symptoms of autism. But they believe that gens from where an infant is born to play a vital role. In a few cases, Doctors also say that it is because of mothers. If a mother during his pregnancy uses some chemicals, then a baby with her maybe autism. But during pregnancy, doctors can’t tell a mother that his baby is autism, because of no symptoms. To prevent from autism, a pregnant mother must take a healthy diet, regular check-up, exercise, vitamins, and supplements.

Diagnose

Early diagnose can change the lives of autism spectrum disorder and their family. But it’s not always easy to diagnose autism spectrum disorder. Because there is no lab test for it, but the behavior of young children to their parents.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscles tone, postures and developing brain before birth. People with cerebral palsy can’t focus with their eyes on the same object. People with cerebral palsy also suffer less movement of joints of their body. Functional ability of cerebral palsy’s affected people is different. Some people can walk. While others can’t. Some people can show normal cerebral, while some can’t.

Symptoms

Symptoms of cerebral palsy may include lack of muscle coordination, slow movements, difficulty with eating, and difficulty in speaking.

Prevention

In most of the cases, cerebral palsy can’t be prevented. But you can take the risk. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. You can follow these steps for a healthy pregnancy or avoid complications in your pregnancy.

  • Take care of yourself

As much as you care of yourself by taking healthy diet. There will be rare chances to birth a cerebral palsy infant.

  • Sure for vaccination

Make sure about your vaccination of rubella. Because it prevents your baby from brain damage.

  • Practice for child safety

During pregnancy take care of yourself. Especially in a car seat, on the bed etc.

Diagnose

If your doctor evaluates about cerebral palsy of your child. Review the medical history of your child. Doctor suggest you the series test to make diagnose for your child. These tests must include:

Brain Scans

By brain, scanning declares the area of abnormal development in the brain. For brain scanning following test is required:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging

MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging, which produces a 3D image of your brain by using radio and magnetic waves. This test is painless, but, it takes an hour to complete.

  • Cranial Ultrasound

This test can be performed during infancy. High-frequency sound waves are used for this test to obtain brain image. Cranial ultrasound doesn’t show a detailed image but it can be used because it’s quick and inexpensive.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

If your child has had a breakdown. Your doctor may order an electroencephalogram test, to determine if he or she has epilepsy. The EEG records the brain activities of your child.

Mental Retardation

It is a state where a brain of a child has a limitation in two areas.

  • Intellectual functioning

This is the ability of IQ, understanding, listening, thinking and making a decision.

  • Adaptive behavior

These are the skills necessary for day-to-day life to communicate and interact with others.

Symptoms

Most of the time it depends upon the severity of the disability. There are some signs of mental retardation.

  • Late rolling, sitting, crawling and walking.
  • Late talking.
  • Feeling difficulty to remember things.
  • Feeling difficulty to think logically.
  • Behavior problems.

Prevention

Some causes of mental retardation can be prevented. To prevent your child from mental retardation, pregnant women should avoid alcohol. She must be careful about her health. She must be careful about all necessary vitamins, vaccination against infectious diseases. Before conception genetic test may be recommended. Before birth, a child mother should perform ultrasound and amniocentesis tests to check any problem in pregnancy.

Diagnose

To diagnose mental retardation, the variety of tests performed. These tests include a blood test, urine test, brain test or EEG. Any delay in these tests may affect the hearing problem and other neurological disorder. A child considers to mental retardation if there is a problem both in adaptive and intellectual behavior.

Visual disability

There are so many people with a visual problem. It may be in childhood or any age of life. A person said to be blind. If one or more parts of the eye or brain unable to process image. If a person unable to see an image clearly then by meditation or surgery, it may be treated. But in the case of total lost vision. It can’t be restored by any type of meditation or surgery. According to the American foundation, about 10 million people in America face visual disability.

Causes

Most people lose their eyesight when they injure by hitting a ball on their head. It may be caused by an accident which affects their head. When some hard things hit our brain then some parts of the brain will be damaged. Due to this vision, the problem is apparent. But if a baby is blind from infancy. It is known as congenital blindness. Congenital blindness is due to so many things. It may occur when due to infection a mother develops fetus during pregnancy.

Symptoms

Symptoms of visual disability very common. It includes,

  • Unable to see a clear image
  • Face difficulty by watching T.V
  • Face difficulty during reading
  • Unable to see a standing man far 20 feet

Diagnose

If your doctor suggests you vision problem. A lot of ways to diagnose it. You can use eye-glasses, eye-lens, eye-drops etc. It will occur due to lack of vitamin A in your diet. So add the use of carrots, milk, eggs, beetroot etc. for better results.

 

Hearing disability

Hearing disability also vary from person to person. There are so many people who will succeed to hear by combining sounds. While some people are unable to hear totally. The timing for hearing also vary. Some people face hearing disability by hearing a loud noise all the time. It may affect the hearing of a person. But some babies are fall in hearing disability at the time of their birth. It is known as congenital hearing.

Causes

The most common cause of hearing disability in kids is due to infection namely otitis. It is basically a pup or fluid, which block the transmission of sound. It may because of some other factors like dust, allergy, outside infection etc.

Symptoms

Symptoms of hearing disability also very common. It includes,

  • Difficulty to hear
  • Unable to judge a sound
  • Unable to see to find the direction of a sound
  • Watch T.V by high volume

Diagnose

To diagnose a hearing problem in babies are difficult. Because they are unable to develop communication skills. Whether it is very easy to diagnose in adults. After diagnosing hearing disability, doctors suggest cleaning you are from dust. If the problem is still, then a hearing instrument is used to hear.

Is ADHD a Developmental Disability?

Yes! ADHD is a developmental disability. ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is the most common mental disease. These type of children are unable to pay attention and control themselves. This disease is very common in boys as compared to girls. Adults with ADHD disease are unable to set goals due to lack of attention. They are also unable to do a job. They also feel difficulty to make relations. These type of children are unable to play with others. These type of people does not like to sit in a single place for a long time. That’s why they are unable to do a job. Due to lack of consistency, they feel boring by doing the same type of work.

Is epilepsy a developmental disability?

Yes! Epilepsy is also a developmental disease. Epilepsy is a very common disease develop by a neurological disorder. About 65 million people face this disease in America. It is mostly found in children. It occurs due to

  •   lack of sleep
  • by using alcohol or caffeine
  •  stress or High fever etc.
  • genes problem

Epilepsy runs from families. If you are suffering epilepsy then take your medicines properly. Epilepsy doesn’t affect your capacity to carry a child. But before planning, pregnancy must contact your doctor to overcome hurdles.

Is muscular dystrophy a developmental disability?

Yes! Muscular dystrophy is a developmental disability. Which typically affect the young boys. Muscular dystrophy is due to a genetic problem. It is due to a lack of proteins. Still, there is no prevention for this disease. A person with the disease of muscular dystrophy feels difficulty in breathing. Chances of heart attack found more in these type of persons. They feel trouble in walking due to joints problem. A serious danger disease which passes away rapidly from father to child.