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Cold Therapy,physiological effects

Cold therapy

a therapy in which ice or cold things applied at the injured area knew as Cryotherapy.

Introduction To Cold Therapy

Application of cold to the tissues after injury practice as old as medicine itself.

Ice therapy may used to:

1)Reduce Pain

2)Reduce Spasticity

3)Reduce Muscle Spasm

4)Reduce Swelling

5)Promote Repair

Cold Therapy

Basic principles

When ice utilized to the skin, heat operated from the skin to the ice and melt it. To change its case, the ice requires huge energy. When trying to cool tissues its important to use ice during treatment and not just cold water.

Cold Therapy


Physiological  effects and uses Of Cold Therapy

1)Circulatory response

2)Metabolism

1)Circulatory Response

The first counter of the skin to cooling an attempt to preserve heat, and this accomplished initial local vasoconstriction.

After a brief period, it follows vasodilatation
and then replacement of constriction and
dilatation. Known as “Lewis Hunting reaction”.

Cold Therapy

The initial phase of vasoconstriction helps to reduce the flow of blood into the tissues following latest injury. This asist to limit swelling and extent of tissue damage.

 

The equivalent phases of vasoconstriction and vasodilatatiohelpps in removing the waste products of metabolism like lactic acid and thus delays fatigue.

Cold Therapy

2)Metabolism:

as the tissue cooled down they decrease the metabolic activity and hence the energy and oxygen requirements of cells get reduce.

Cold Therapy

Therapeutic  Effects Of Cold Therapy

the therapeutic effects include:

1)Pain Relief

2)Muscle Spasm

3)Inflammation

  1. Pain relief:

one of the greatly  adequate physiotherapeutic
modality in relieving pain.

  1. Muscle spasm:

useful in releasing muscle spasm.

3.Inflammation:

It acomplish initial intention of inflammation
by contracting vascular or cellular part of
inflammation as a result of vasoconstriction. 

Techniques used in Cryotherapy

The different techniques used for administering cold include:

1.Ice massage.

2.Ice towels.

3.Immersion in the cold or cold whirlpool.

4.Ice packs or cold packs.

5.Vapocoolant Sprays


ICE MASSAGE

In Ice massage, the ice kept in a polythene bag and
applied over the body tissue.Cold Therapy

in this, we can use crushed ice cube etc.

Ice sack put on the patient’s tissue.

The movement of the bag should backward and forward and
rotatory.

The duration of ice sack on the body should 10-20 mins.


ICE TOWEL:

the ice solution made in this technique by
stuffing a pot or bowl with 2 parts of flaked or
crushed ice to 1 part  water in which two abide
towels are immersed.

Surplus water  twisted out of the towel remaining as much
ice clinging to it that possible, it is then utilized to the
part being treated. Cold Therapy

The towel should change after every 30 sec to 2 mins.

likely 10 towels can be exercised consecutively with
a total treatment time of 15-20 minutes.

 

Cold immersion

this technique can also use for
areas of the distal extremities by soaking
the area in ice water.

as the cold utilized straight to the skin very
much the same as in an ice massage application, the
duration of this will not be longer than 5 mins.

Cold Therapy

 

excessive ice soaking treatments can cause tissue
damage to distal borders where circulation is
low and should hence use with caution.

Cold pack

The cold sacks consist of special material which maintains
the cold like, silicate gel.

These are accessible in different sizes and shapes.

 

The cold sacks stocked in special refrigeration or
freezer for minimum twenty mins to one hour before use.

The major advantage of these cold sacks that they
recycle and can curve or mold themselves
according to the body part treated.

Vapocoolant sprays

  Vapocoolant sprays, such as fluoride-methane
worn as a medium of achieving a
superficial cold application.

Fluori-methane and further Vapocoolant
materials that stored in a pressurized bottle and
than showered against the skin surface that
treated.

Cold Therapy

When exposed to air, these liquids evaporate very
swiftly, creating the basal tissue to be chilled.

Contraindication

Cryotherapy contraindications include :

1)Raynaud’s disease.

2)Buerger’s disease.

3)Cryoglobulinaemia.

4)Regenerating peripheral nerves.

5)Impaired sensation.

6)Arteriosclerosis.

Dangers and precautions

Dangers:

Severe local cooling can result in hypothermia.

It may
be a life-threatening situation.

The patient’s having sacred of the cold may react
adversely. They start producing histamines like
materials creating urticaria with skin rash and itching.

Precautions should  take while:

Treating the patient with hypertension.

practicing into an area where nerves are superficial
such as axilla, medial epicondyle and head of the fibula.

dealing with a patient with cardiovascular disease.