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Biofeedback Working Principle And Its Clinical Uses

Biofeedback Working Principle The technique used to measure, process and feedback some information from which the people unaware means of auditory or visual signals with the help of electronic instruments termed as biofeedback.

Biofeedback  Working Principle:

A Reward model usually used with these biofeedback techniques. According to this, positive reinforcement occurs in the patients with the generation of motor activity.

Application Of Biofeedback:

Instruments for biofeedback designed in such a way that they record the physiological events and then quantify these events and after that show the information in some meaning full form. Some examples of this biofeedback given below:

  1. Peripheral skin temperature in fahrenheit measures the status of the blood vessels, As when the vessels dilate, more blood enters the part and in turn the temperature of the part increase.
  2. Finger photo transmission: a method for measuring peripheral vasoconstrictionmeans of a photoplethysmograph. The light passed through a finger or toe, reflect off a bone and after that passing back through soft tissues, it sensed a sensor inserted in an instrument. Blood volume changes and pulse detected.
  3. The activity of sweat gland can measure means of galvanic skin response (GSR). The measurement of skin conductance beneficial for the assessment of the psycho physiologic arousal and used for lie detection.
  4. EMG biofeedback: Most important of all biofeedback modalities. with the contraction of muscles, electrochemical changes occur. The changes in the electrolytes recorded by electrodes placed near the muscle fibers.


EMG measured visually through an oscilloscope, usually as a line traveling across the monitor, a light that on and off and a bar graph that alters the dimensions. Some forms of the meter also present in biofeedback units. These meters can either analog or digital.

In some biofeedback units, the activity recorded and displayed an audio signal. Therefore, after the detection of the activity, some tone, buzz, beep or click heard. Increase in the audio shows an increase in muscle activity and vice versa.

Biofeedback Working principle

Signals sensitivity can set manually. If high gain selected, highly sensitive for the detection of muscle activity take place. It can set as 1, 10,100 UV. 1uV detects the small amount of activity occurring in the muscle thus its signals sensitivity high. High sensitivity uses full for relaxation while low use full for muscle reduction.

Clinical Uses Of Biofeedback:

  1. Peripheral nerve injuries
  2. Spinal cord injuries
  3. Hemiplegia
  4. Dystonias
  5. Spasticity
  6. Postural control
  7. Muscle strengthening
  8. Function reeducation
  9. Promotion of relaxation
Biofeedback Working Principle Use in Stressed Condition:

In these conditions, biofeedback used fully for the promotion of relaxation. These conditions include:

  1. Essential hypertension
  2. Cardiac arrhythmias
  3. Raynaud’s disease
  4. A migraine
  5. A tension headache
  6. Epilepsy
Contraindication of Biofeedback Working Principle

Muscular problems in which contraction can cause further deterioration, biofeedback contraindicated.

Some other contraindications include:

  • Different conditions of skin like eczema, dermatitis.
  • A patient allergic to the electrode or contact material (tape/gel).
  • Patient who do not give any response to the therapist’s instructions.
  • Patient with pacemakers can affect indirectly through electromagnetic fields.